Alabama Population Distribution by Race and Counties

Last updated on December 19th, 2023 at 10:00 am


During the United States census of August 7, 1820, the population of Alabama was 144,317. It was a year after the state joined the union as the 22nd state on December 14, 1819. Over two centuries after, the Heart of Dixie increased by 4,879,962.

The population was 5,024,279 in 2020 compared to 4,779,736 in the 2010 census. The Yellowhammer State increased by 244,543 people or by 5.1% from 2010 to 2020.

Located in the southern United States, this article x-rays the population distribution of Alabama, the summary of its demographics, age, sex, counties, and its poverty status among others.

Alabama Population Distribution by Race and Counties

So, if you are planning to relocate to the Cotton state for business opportunities or you want only data to take business decisions, for assignments or other research work, we’ve simplified the entire process for you.

Ethnic and Racial Diversity

In the 24th census, White is the dominant race in Alabama with 68.9% of residents followed by African American (or African American) was 26.8%.

American Indian and Alaska Native alone 0.7%; Asian alone 1.6%; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 0.1%; Two or More Races 1.9%; Hispanic or Latino 4.8%.

By the percentage of different races residing in Alabama, it can be summarized as follows:

Black or African-American1,346,50626.8%
American Indian and Alaska Native35,1690.7%
Asian alone80,3881.6%
Hispanic or Latino241,1654.8%
Two or more races95,4611.9%

Note: The data here is based on the 2020 population census of the State of Alabama. It shall be updated when a new one is available.

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Population Distribution of Alabama by Counties:

There are 67 counties in Alabama, the most populous is Jefferson County with 674,721 residents while the least by population is Greene County with just 7,730, according to U.S 2020 population census.

Note: Jefferson County is named after the 3rd U.S president Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826).

One might possibly guess that the most populous county should be the largest, but it doesn’t always work like that.

For Alabama, Baldwin County is the largest by land area, covering 1,589.78 sq mi or 4,118 km2 area while the smallest is Etowah which covers 535 sq mi, or 1,386 km2.

The table below shows how 5,024,279 spreads across the 67 counties in the Cotton State:

2Mobile County414,809
3Madison County388,153
4Baldwin County231,767
5Montgomery County228,954
7Shelby County223,024
8Lee County174,241
9Morgan County123,421
10Calhoun County116,441
11Houston County107,202
12Limestone County103,570
13Etowah County103,436
14Marshall County97,612
15Lauderdale County93,564
16St. Clair County91,103
17Elmore County87,977
18Cullman County87,866
19Talladega County82,149
20DeKalb County71,608
21Walker County65,342
22Russell County59,183
23Blount County59,134
24Autauga County58,805
26Coffee County53,465
27Jackson County52,579
28Dale County49,326
29Chilton County45,014
30Tallapoosa County41,311
31Dallas County38,462
32Covington County37,570
33Escambia County36,757
34Chambers County34,772
35Lawrence County33,073
36Pike County33,009
37Franklin County32,113
38Marion County29,341
39Geneva County26,659
40Barbour County25,223
41Cherokee County24,971
42Winston County23,540
43Clarke County23,087
44Bibb County22,293
45Randolph County21,967
46Monroe County19,772
47Macon County19,532
48Marengo County19,323
49Pickens County19,123
50Butler County19,051
51Henry County17,146
52Fayette County16,321
53Washington County15,388
54Cleburne County15,056
55Hale County14,785
56Clay County14,236
57Lamar County13,972
58Crenshaw County13,194
59Choctaw County12,665
60Sumter County12,345
61Conecuh County11,597
62Wilcox County10,600
63Coosa County10,387
64Bullock County10,357
65Lowndes County10,311
66Perry County8,511
67Greene County7,730

Age Distribution:

According to, the age distribution of residents that are 16 years and over have the highest with 3,926,842, representing 80.3% of the total population and closely followed by 18 years and above, having 3,800,274, representing 77.7 per cent.

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AgeEstimatePer centage (estimate)
Under 5 years293,9326%
5 to 9 years294,7766%
10 to 14 years315,2046.4%
15 to 19 years321,3086.6%
20 to 24 years323,9606.6%
25 to 29 years334,6506.8%
30 to 34 years307,2176.3%
35 to 39 years301,4046.2%
40 to 44 years293,8526.0%
45 to 49 years308,8366.3%
50 to 54 years316,9966.5%
55 to 59 years331,9036.8%
60 to 64 years321,7146.6%
65 to 69 years273,6485.6%
70 to 74 years217,3934.4%
75 to 79 years145,8273.0%
80 to 84 years101,9412.1%
85 and above88,6251.8%
based on 4,893,932 population on

Sex Distribution:

By this, we mean the gender – the number of males and females – in Alabama. There were 2,582,479 females, representing 51.4% while males were 2,441,799, representing 48.6%, according to the data available on U.S Census Bureau.


What’s the population of Alabamians who have a minimum of a Bachelor’s Degree? Relying on the 2020 census, 26.2%

1,316,361 people in Alabama have Bachelor’s degree or higher while a high school diploma or its equivalent is the highest qualification of 3,707,918 residents. These include people who attended college but did not receive a degree.

The bureau says, “Persons with a Bachelor’s Degree or Higher are those who have received a bachelor’s degree from a college or university, or a master’s, professional, or doctorate degree”.

Health insurance:

How many of them are without healthcare? What’s their age range? In 2020, it’s estimated that persons under 65 years and without health insurance were 592,864, representing 11.8%.

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However, one-year estimates by the 2021 American Community Survey put the percentage of those without healthcare coverage at 9.9%.

Disability distribution

When planning, the state government of Alabama makes special provisions for persons living with disabilities.

And of course, disability is categorized into six by the United States centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

They are:

1) Mobility: serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs;

2) Cognition: serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions;

3) Independent living: serious difficulty doing errands alone, such as visiting a doctor’s office;

4) Hearing: deafness or serious difficulty hearing;

5) Vision: blind or serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing glasses, and

6) Self-care: difficulty dressing or bathing.

The estimated number of persons in Alabama with one form of disability or the other at 1,280,509 adults.

Considering the number of persons living with disability, U.S CDC says about $13.2 billion USD of Alabama’s healthcare spending (or 39%) is budgeted to take care the needs of persons under this category every year.

Median Household Income and Poverty

The median household income in Alabama is $52,035 while per capita income $28,934. There are several research firms that have reported the poverty rate in the state.

But the 2020 census showed that about 808,908, representing 16.1% of Alabama’s population lived below the poverty line.

According to a report by Advance Local in September 2022, Alabama is making significant progress in addressing the issue of poverty in Cotton State as the poverty rate went down slightly from 2010 to 2011.

Also, the median income in the state went up, as it showed Alabama ranking 42nd among the 50 U.S states in median household income, according to new U.S. Census data.


Alabama is a white-dominant state, the black population in the state only comes in far second position.

Above all, the Yellowhammer State is a great state to settle in, especially for small business owners who are looking for where the cost of running a business would be minimal and affordable (low cost of living).

Using indicators like sex, age, median income, healthcare, education, and race in Alabama’s population distribution is good for taking key economic and business decisions. It also helps the government in planning.

From 2010 to August 2021, Alabama experienced a growth in population by 5.1%, surpassing 5 Million, according to the Census Bureau


  1. Data Census (2020). “Age distribution of Alabama 2020”.
  2. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “Disability & Health U.S. State Profile Data for Alabama (Adults 18+ years of age)”.
  3. US Census Bureau (2020). “Quick Facts about Alabama”.

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