What It Takes To Start a Beekeeping Business (A Step-By-Step Guide)


What is a Beekeeping Business?

Also known as apiculture, beekeeping refers to the maintenance of bee colonies, usually in hives, by humans. Some people might keep bees for personal use, but when this practice is done on a commercial scale for the purpose of making a profit, it becomes a beekeeping business.

If you are planning to make a profit by ‘rearing’ bees, then you are on the right page because this article provides details of what it entails to start a beekeeping business.

Classification of beekeeping business

To a professional or someone who is already in the business, it may sound simple, but to a newbie, the scope of a beekeeping business can be much broader than that. Here are the aspects of the beekeeping business:


Honey production: 

The most widely recognized product from beekeeping, honey is harvested from the hives and then processed, packaged, and sold to consumers. You can check our template for a business plan for the honey production business.

Bee wax:

Another product derived from beehives is beeswax, which is used in a variety of products including candles, cosmetics, and polishes.

Pollen and propolis:

Both are collected by bees for different reasons and have health benefits for humans. While pollen is often touted as a superfood, propolis is known for its medicinal properties.

Royal jelly:

This is a secretion used to nourish larvae and the queen bee. It’s harvested and sold for its health benefits and is often found in health supplements and skincare products.

Bee venom:

Bee venom is harvested and can be quite valuable in various medical and cosmetic applications.

Bee breeding:

Some beekeepers specialize in breeding bees to sell to other beekeepers. This can include breeding for certain traits such as resistance to pests or increased honey production.

Beyond direct products, beekeepers might offer services like bee removal, educational workshops, and hive tours.

Pollination services:

Farmers often rent bee colonies to pollinate their crops. This is a significant source of income for many beekeepers, especially in areas with large-scale agriculture.

So, you can choose which area of beekeeping business you want to focus on, but the most popular aspect is honey production. If you are going for honey production, focusing on the organic aspect of it is profitable.

Research and Education

Beekeeping is one of the businesses that require thorough research and abundant knowledge to avoid disaster. Here’s a beekeeper’s playbook to guide you:

Hands-on courses:

Enroll in practical courses. Nothing beats the hands-on experience of handling bees, identifying diseases, and understanding their behavior. Here is a list of courses you can take to boost your beekeeping business journey:

Beekeeping books:

Stack your shelves with beekeeping classics. They’re a treasure trove of information, especially when you need a quick reference.

Some of the best beekeeping books you can lay your hands on include:

  • The Backyard Beekeeper: An Absolute Beginner’s Guide to Keeping Bees in Your Yard and Garden by Kim Flottum
  • The Bee Book: Discover the Wonder of Bees and How to Protect Them for Generations to Come by Alistair Daing
  • The Beekeepers Handbook by Diana Sammataro and Alphonse Avitabile
  • Common Sense Natural Beekeeping: Sustainable, Bee-Friendly Techniques to Help Your Hives Survive and Thrive by Kim Flottum
  • Honey Bee Biology and Beekeeping, Revised by Dewey Caron and Lawrence Connor

Regulations are key:

Before setting up, familiarize yourself with local regulations. Every region has specific guidelines about hive placement, bee species, and even honey sales.

Bee laws and regulations vary from state to state in the United States, you can find your location on Apiary Inspectors of America’s official website here.

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Similarly, there is the Ontario Bee Act in case you want to begin a beekeeping business in Ontario, Canada (the summarized version is here)

If you’re starting a bee business in Nigeria, you must familiarize yourself with the Bee Import Control and Management Act.


Connect with veteran beekeepers. Their wealth of experience can guide you through challenges you might face.

Online Forums:

Platforms like Beesource and BeeMaster have vibrant communities. Pose questions, share experiences, and soak in wisdom from global beekeepers

Business Plan

Determine the scale of your operation: hobbyist, sideliner, or commercial.

Estimate costs: equipment, bees, ongoing expenses, etc.

Forecast potential revenue from honey, beeswax, pollen, royal jelly, propolis, and even bee sales.

Analyze the market: Who are your competitors? Where will you sell? What’s your unique selling proposition? We already put a sample of a business plan for honey-related business.

Choose a beekeeping site

Having spent countless hours scouting for the perfect beekeeping spot, these tips will help you:

Proximity to flora:

Ensure your site is close to abundant flowering plants. Your bees need diverse pollen and nectar sources. This not only keeps them healthy but also produces richer, more flavorful honey.


Choose a site you can access easily in all weather conditions. You’ll need to inspect, manage, and possibly treat your hives regularly.

Safety first:

Bees can become defensive. Always consider neighbors, pets, and passersby. A secluded spot or a protective barrier like a fence can work wonders.

Natural protection:

Sites shielded by trees or structures can protect your bees from strong winds and harsh sunlight.

Water Source:

Bees need water. If there isn’t a natural source nearby, set up a shallow water basin. This prevents them from seeking water in neighboring swimming pools or birdbaths.

Purchase Equipment

Your shopping list should contain the following:

Beehives: The home for your bees. There are various designs like Langstroth, Top-Bar, and Warre. I personally recommend starting with Langstroth; it’s versatile and widely used.

Protective gear: Never compromise on safety. Get a high-quality bee suit, gloves, and veil. Even the calmest bee colony can have bad days.

Essential tools such as:

  • Smoker: Calms the bees during hive inspections.
  • Hive Tool: Multipurpose and invaluable. It helps you pry apart frames and scrape off excess wax or propolis.
  • Bee brush: Gently brushes bees off frames during inspections or honey harvesting.
  • Extraction Kit: Once the honey flows, you’ll need:
  • Extractor: Centrifugal force helps in drawing honey out from the frames. Opt for a manual one when starting out.
  • Strainers and buckets: Essential for filtering out impurities from honey.
  • Bottling equipment: For packaging your liquid gold.
  • Miscellaneous: These might not seem vital initially, but they’ll make your beekeeping journey smoother:
  • Frame holders: Handy tools to hold frames during inspections.
  • Feeders: Essential during times when natural nectar sources are scarce.

The average cost of starting a small-scale beekeeping business

Starting a beekeeping business can vary widely in cost, based on several factors including the scale of operation, location, equipment quality, and local regulations.

Here are some rough estimates for starting a small-scale beekeeping business in Nigeria , Canada, the U.S, and the UK:


  • Hives: Traditional hives can be relatively cheap, you can ask local furniture specialist can make this for you. But modern Langstroth hives might cost between NGN5,000 to NGN20,000 each.
  • Protective gear: A full bee suit can range from NGN7,000 to NGN15,000.
  • Tools and accessories: Basic tools including smokers, hive tools, and brushes can cost around NGN10,000 to NGN25,000 in total.
  • Bee colonies: A nucleus colony might cost between NGN7,000 to NGN12,000.

Total Estimated Cost: NGN29,000 to NGN72,000 for a small start.

United States:

  • Hives: A starter kit including a hive can range from $150 to $300.
  • Protective gear: A full beekeeping suit can range from $50 to $150.
  • Tools and accessories: Basics like smokers, hive tools, etc., can cost around $50 to $100 in total.
  • Bee colonies: A nucleus colony might range from $150 to $250.
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Total Estimated Cost: $400 to $800 for a small start.


  • Hives: A starter kit including a hive might range from CAD 200 to CAD 400.
  • Protective gear: A full beekeeping suit can be between CAD 70 to CAD 200.
  • Tools and accessories: Basics can cost around CAD 60 to CAD 120.
  • Bee colonies: A nucleus colony might cost between CAD 180 to CAD 300.

Total estimated cost: CAD 510 to CAD 1,020 for a small start.

United Kingdom (UK):

  • Hives: A starter hive can range from £150 to £300.
  • Protective gear: A full beekeeping suit can range from £50 to £120.
  • Tools and accessories: Basics can cost around £40 to £80.
  • Bee colonies: A nucleus colony might range from £150 to £250.

Total estimated cost: £390 to £750 for a small start

Obtain Bees

Nucleus colonies (Nucs):

Think of these as starter packs. A nuc contains a queen, workers, and brood. They’re easier to manage and often establish faster than package bees.

Package bees:

Essentially a box of bees with a separate queen. They’re usually shipped over long distances. While they might be a tad cheaper, they can take longer to establish than nucs.

Swarm collection:

Capturing a swarm can be exhilarating but is better left to those with some experience. It’s nature’s way of saying a colony is ready to split and find a new home.

Purchase from reputed sources:

Always buy from well-known, respected sellers. This reduces the risk of introducing diseases or pests into your apiary.

Local bees:

If possible, opt for local bee strains. They’re often better adapted to the region’s climate and forage conditions.

Introducing bees to the hive:

This is a delicate process. Ensure the hive is ready, with frames and some food if necessary. If introducing a package or a new queen, give the bees time to get accustomed before releasing her


Routine inspections:

Regular hive checks are crucial. Look for signs of diseases, pests, and check the queen’s health.

Record keeping:

Maintain a bee diary. Note down hive activities, bee behavior, honey production, and any unusual observations. Over time, this becomes an invaluable resource.

Bee health:

Diseases: Familiarize yourself with common bee ailments like American foulbrood or Nosema. Early detection can save your colony.


Keep an eye out for threats like Varroa mites or wax moths. Ensure your hive’s surroundings are clean to reduce risks.

Queen Management:

Spotting the queen: Regularly ensure your queen is active and laying. If she’s aging or her laying pattern diminishes, consider requeening.

Requeening: This is the process of introducing a new queen to the hive. It’s an art in itself and can ensure better genetics and hive vigor.

Feeding: In off-seasons or during dearth, bees might need supplemental feeding. Sugar syrup or pollen substitutes can be life-savers.

Swarm control: As your hive grows, they might feel crowded and decide to swarm. Regular inspections and management techniques, like adding more room or splitting hives, can prevent this

Harvest and Process

Extracting that golden liquid is sheer joy, here’s how to do it right:

  • Timing: Wait for the bees to cap at least 80% of the honey in a frame. This means it’s dehydrated to the right consistency.
  • Extraction space: Ensure you’ve got a clean, bee-free space for extraction. It can get sticky, so being organized helps.
  • Removing Frames:
  • Use a bee escape: A one-way exit for bees, ensuring they leave the honey supers without returning.
  • Gentle brushing: If some bees linger, use your bee brush to gently nudge them off.
  • Uncapping: Before extraction, you need to uncap the honey. Use an uncapping knife (electric or cold) or even a fork to do so.
  • Spinning out: Place the frames in an extractor and spin away. Centrifugal force will push the honey out.
  • Filtering: Once extracted, honey will contain wax bits and other impurities. Strain it using a fine mesh or nylon strainer.
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Storage containers: Make sure they’re clean and dry. Any moisture can spoil the honey.

Labeling: Add a label with the harvest date and any other details. It’s a touch of professionalism and helps track batches.

Processing beeswax: If you’ve accumulated wax from the uncapping process, melt, strain, and mold it. It’s valuable and can be sold or used in various products.

Cleanup: Honey attracts bees and other insects. Clean all equipment and the extraction area thoroughly.

Sales and Marketing

Turning your bee products into profit is an art. Understanding the market is as crucial as understanding bees. Let’s buzz into the sales and marketing hive:


  • Unique Selling Proposition (USP): What makes your honey stand out? Maybe it’s a specific floral source or your sustainable practices.
  • Logo and labels: Invest in a memorable logo. Ensure your product labels are clear, attractive, and compliant with local regulations.
  • Local Farmer’s Markets: A prime spot to sell. You get direct feedback, build a customer base, and it’s an excellent place to share the beekeeping story.

Online Sales:

  • E-commerce Platforms: Sites like Etsy or even a personal Shopify store can be effective.
  • Social Media: Platforms like Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter are goldmines for visually rich products like honey. Share behind-the-scenes shots, bee facts, and engage with followers.
  • Wholesale: Approach local stores or specialty food shops. They often appreciate local, quality products.
  • Tastings and workshops: Organize honey tastings or beekeeping workshops. It’s an interactive way to attract potential customers and spread bee awareness.
  • Pricing: Ensure you cover costs and make a profit. But also stay competitive. Regular market research helps.
  • Testimonials and reviews: Encourage satisfied customers to leave reviews. Word of mouth is powerful.
  • Environmental angle: Highlight sustainable and eco-friendly practices. It’s a strong selling point in today’s conscious market.
  • Diversify: Beyond honey, sell products like beeswax candles, lip balms, or propolis tinctures. It increases revenue streams and attracts diverse clientele

Handling Challenges and Setbacks in Beekeeping Business

Bee Health:

Diseases and pests: Regular monitoring can detect early signs of diseases like foulbrood or pests like Varroa mites. Quick intervention, whether it’s medication or hive management, can save your colony.

Diseases peculiar to bees are:

  • Varroa mites
  • Nosemosis
  • Bee viruses
  • Amebiosis or Amaebiasis
  • European Foulbrood (EFB)
  • Chalkbrood and Stonebrood
  • American Foulbrood (AFB)

Preventive care: Regular hive inspections, maintaining hive cleanliness, and ensuring good ventilation can preempt many issues.

Environmental factors:

Weather: Extreme conditions, be it heatwaves or cold snaps, can stress bees. Strategic hive placements and season-appropriate hive management help.

Forage scarcity: If local flora doesn’t provide enough, consider supplemental feeding. Plant bee-friendly flora if you have the space.

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD): A mysterious challenge where worker bees disappear. While its exact causes are debated, maintaining overall bee health can mitigate risks.

Human errors:

Over-harvesting: Ensure you leave enough honey for the bees, especially during winter. Greed can lead to a starving colony.

Improper handling: Rough handling can stress or even harm bees. Always move calmly and gently around the hive.

Vandalism and theft: Sadly, hives can be targets. If in a remote location, consider security measures or even tracking devices for valuable hives.

Economic challenges:

Market fluctuations: Honey prices can vary. Diversifying products, like selling beeswax or propolis, can buffer against market dips.

Cost management: Regularly review and optimize operational costs. Investing in efficient tools or practices can save money in the long run. 


Beekeeping is more than just a business venture; it’s an age-old practice that intricately ties humanity to nature’s rhythm.

The world of apiculture is interesting even with its surmountable challenges.

In diverse regions like Nigeria, the United States, Canada, and the UK, starting costs may differ, but the essence of beekeeping remains rooted in sustainability and the well-being of the bee colonies.

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