2023_presidential_candidates_in_nigeria

2023 Presidential Candidates in Nigeria

Millions of eligible Nigerian voters will go to the polls in 2023 to elect a new president and vice president as the incumbent Muhammadu Buhari is expected to hand over power on May 29, 2023, after exhausting the maximum two-term as the president of the most populous African country.

According to the timetable by the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), the Presidential and National Assembly elections will be held on February 25, 2023.

Governorship and State Houses of Assembly elections will be held on March 11, 2023. For the gubernatorial election, only 29 states will participate in the general election. This is because elections are staggered in seven states (Edo, Osun, Anambra, Ekiti, Bayelsa, Kogi, and Ondo).

Party primaries were scheduled for between 4 April and 9 June 2022 with the Peoples Democratic Party nominating former Vice President Atiku Abubakar on 28 May while the All Progressives Congress nominated former Governor of Lagos State Bola Tinubu on 8 June.

Primary Elections

Before the party primaries which were earlier slated to hold on April 4 through June 3, 2022, a deadline was later shifted to June 9, by the electoral umpire.

Before the primaries, there were internal heat and political drama within the two major political parties: All Progressives Congress (APC) and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP).

Basically, there was an unwritten agreement within the two parties that their presidential ticket would be zoned to the Southern region of the country. The southern region comprises three geopolitical zones: South-west, South-east, and South-south.

PDP was the first to renege on the unwritten promise. The National Chairman of the PDP Iyochia Ayu who is also from the North announced on May 11, 20222, that the presidential ticket of PDP would be opened to all interested candidates across the country.

PDP Primary

Going by the voting strength of regions in Nigeria in internal-party and national elections, it was clear to those that opposed the idea of throwing the ticket open that a northern candidate would emerge as the party’s flag bearer. It did happen, though a Southern candidate pulled a powerful challenge.

After the behind-the-scene ahead of the PDP primary, four aspirants withdrew from the race, leaving 12 aspirants in the competition.

Those who went into the PDP primary include:

  • Atiku Abubakar: former Vice president
  • Ezenwo Nyesom Wike: Incumbent Governor of Rivers State
  • Bukola Saraki: former President of the Senate
  • Udom Gabriel Emmanuel: Incumbent Governor of Akwa Ibom State
  • Ayo Fayose: Ex-Governor of Ekiti State 
  • Sam Ohuabunwa: Ex-president of the Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria
  • Bala Mohammed: Incumbent Governor of Bauchi State
  • Chikwendu Kalu: former Speaker of the Abia State House of Assembly
  • Anyim Pius Anyim: former Secretary to the Government of the Federation 
  • Dele Momodu: Publisher of Ovation Magazine
  • Diana Oliver Tariela
  • Charles Ugwu

After allegations of vote buying at the venue of the primary, Nigeria’s former Vice President Atiku Abubakar (a northern candidate) was announced as the winner of the PDP presidential candidate for the 2023 election on May 28, 2022. He garnered 371 votes, representing 49.34% of the total valid vote cast.

His closet challenger, Nyesom Wike got 237 votes, representing 31.52% of 764 delegates that turned up for the primary election. The third position went to Bukola Saraki with 70 votes, representing 9.31% of the votes cast.

APC

The day leading to the APC primary election was more dramatic than what happened in the PDP.

There were speculations that some cabal within the ruling APC wanted the presidency to remain in the North while some powerful voices within the party led by the Governor of Kaduna State Nasir El-rufai wanted the presidency to return to the southern part of the country.

There were a series of meetings, consultations, permutations, alignment and re-alignment. But during the APC exco meetings held in Abuja, the National Party Chairman of APC Abdullahi Adamu announced the Senate President Ahmed Lawan as a consensus candidate of the party.

The announcement of Sen. Lawan was overwhelmingly rejected by the majority of the party excos and the national chairman stormed out of the meeting without speaking to the press.

That’s how the consensus candidate earlier proposed by the party and supported by President Muhammadu Buhari collapsed and the party ticket was thrown open.

The former Lagos Governor and National Leader of the party Sen. Tinubu who was angered by the failed internal party coup to outsmart him out of the race made a statement saying, “emilokan” meaning it’s my turn to become the president.

Today, there is Emilokan Campaign Group that is canvassing for the fulfilment of Tinubu’s 2023 presidency.

All 32 interested presidential candidates in APC purchased an expression of interest form price at NGN30 million and the nomination form price at NGN70 million, making NGN100 million.

 Although there was a 50% nomination form discount for candidates younger than 40 while women and candidates with disabilities get free nomination forms, it was merely a gimmick to give women, and people living with disabilities a sense of belonging.

Tinubu who had the widest campaign train emerged as the APC’s candidate for the 2023 presidential election on June 8, 2022.

How Tinubu emerged as APC flagbearer

Before the D-day which ran from June 7 through June 8 at the Special National Convention of APC in Abuja, Tinubu and 13 others went into the election after 18 aspirants had earlier withdrawn their interest or voluntarily stepped down at the venue of the convention for the former Lagos governor.

Aspirants who withdrew before June 7 party primaries are:

  • Godwin Emefiele: incumbent CBN Governor
  • Orji Uzor Kalu: former governor of Abia state
  • Chris Ngige: Incumbent Minister of Labour and Employment
  • Ken Nnamani: former Senate President
  • Adams Oshiomhole: former National Chairman of APC
  • Adamu Garba II: businessman
  • Moses Ayom: businessman
  • Ibrahim Bello Dauda: businessman
  • Gbenga Olawepo-Hashim: activist and businessman
  • Timipre Sylva: Incumbent Minister of State for Petroleum Resources

Aspirants who stepped down for Tinubu on the day of the election are:

  1. Kayode Fayemi: Governor of Ekiti State 
  2. Ibikunle Amosun:  former Governor of Ogun State
  3. Mohammed Badaru Abubakar: Governor of Jigawa
  4. Godswill Akpabio: Ex-Governor of Akwa Ibom State
  5. Ajayi Boroffice: Senator for Ondo North
  6. Lawyer Uju Kennedy Ohanenye (the female presidential aspirant in APC)
  7. Dimeji Bankole: Ex-Speaker of the House of Representatives

Only one aspirant, Pastor Nicholas Felix, stepped down for Vice President Yemi Osinbajo

13 Aspirants went into the contest, and all of them lobbied to get the support of 2,340 APC delegates for the presidential primary but only 2,322 delegates honoured the convention.

Tinubu got 1,271 votes (out of 2, 102 valid votes), representing 60.47% of the total valid votes cast. This means Tinubu’s votes are more than the total number of votes received by 13 other contenders. The combined votes of the 13 aspirants were 831.

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The closet challenger was Rotimi Amaechi, a former Governor of Rivers State and ex-Minister of Transportation who received 316 votes, representing 15.03% while VP Yemi Osinbajo came third, taking 11.18% of the vote cast at 235 votes.

The Senate President Lawan who the party chairman earlier tried to bring through the back door got 152 votes; Governor of Kogi Yahaya Bello (47 votes); Governor of Ebonyi Dave Umahi (38 votes); Governor of Cross River (37 votes); Former Governor of Zamfara Sani Yerima (4 votes); Chukwuemeka Nwajiuba, who was absent at the convention and Ogbonnaya Onu both received one vote respectively.

Pastor Tunde Bakare, the founder of Global Citadel Community Church (CGCC); a businessman, development and investment strategist Tein Jack-Rich; former governor of Imo State Rochas Okorocha, and the former Minister of Information and Culture Ikeobasi Mokelu got no vote.

Political Parties for the 2023 Presidential Election

Presidential candidates of other political parties also emerged through primaries or consensus. Below are the political parties that will be participating in the 2023 presidential election:

  1. All Progressives Congress (APC)
  2. People’s Democratic Party (PDP)
  3. Labour Party (LP)
  4. New Nigeria Peoples Party (NNPP)
  5. All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA)
  6. Accord (A)
  7. Action Democratic Party (ADP)
  8. Action Peoples Party (APP)
  9. Action Alliance (AA)
  10. Social Democratic Party (SDP)
  11. Allied Peoples Movement (APM)
  12. African Action Congress (AAC)
  13. Young Progressives Party (YPP)
  14. African Democratic Congress (ADC)
  15. Boot Party (BP)
  16. National Rescue Movement (NRM)
  17. People’s Redemption Party (PRP)
  18. Zenith Progressives Alliance (ZPA)

Meet the 18 Presidential Candidates in 2023 General Elections

Let’s take a look at the political antecedent of 2023 Nigerian presidential candidates, their running mates, and their authentic social media handles:

Bola Ahmed Tinubu (APC)

Tinubu popularly called Jagaban is a popular name in Nigeria’s political field as far back as the 1990s. He is one of the founding fathers of the defunct Alliance for Democracy (AD), then Action Congress before changing its name to Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN).

The Jagaban of Borgu who is now a kingmaker in the South-West geopolitical zone was once quoted as saying he is richer than Osun State, the state believed to be his original state.

Tinubu is one of the most controversial figures among the contestants for Nigeria’s No. 1 seat. Some of them include the appearance of two bullion vans in his compound before the 2019 presidential election, controversy surrounding his SSCE certificates, and false declaration of assets (which he was cleared of), but against all odds, he was cleared by the APC screening committee to contest as the party’s flag bearer.

Political antecedent:

His first major political office was as a Federal lawmaker representing Lagos West Senatorial District from December 5, 1992, till November 17, 1993, when the Sani Abacha-led coup kicked out the Interim Government.

He was one of the loyal followers of the Late MKO Abiola who won the 1993 presidential election before it was annulled by Gen. Ibrahim Babangida.

The annulment sparked renewed activism in NADECO, a group that had been putting pressure on the military to allow a democratic nation.

As the military regime of Gen Abdulsalami Abubakar announced his willingness to return Nigeria to Democracy, Tinubu with other political heavyweights founded AD under which he contested and won as Lagos State governor. He was the governor of Lagos from May 29, 1999, till May 29, 2007.

Running mate: The former Lagos state governor on July 10, 2022, announced former Governor of Borno State and Senator Kashim Shettima as his running after many speculations that no party or individual could try a Muslim-Muslim ticket again after the 1993 Presidential election.

The Muslim-Muslim ticket sparked outrage in the Christian community, but he says it was a political strategy to win the much-anticipated election to deliver the dividend of democracy to millions of Nigerians.

Tinubu’s social media connections:

  • Twitter: @officialABAT
  • Instagram: @officialasiwajubat
  • Domain name: bolatinubu.com

Atiku Abubakar (PDP)

Nigeria’s former Vice President (May 29, 1999, till May 29, 2007) is no stranger to the formation of several political parties in Nigeria as far back as the 1980s.

His main goal for founding and funding political parties was clear: to become Nigeria’s president. Atiku Abubakar after his retirement from the Nigeria Customs had unsuccessfully contested Nigeria’s No. 1 position five times since 1989.

At a time, there was a debate over his country of origin, some of his critics say he was originally from Cameroon before part of the territory was ceded to Nigeria. But the court has resolved the controversies surrounding his origin.

Running mate: On June 16, 2022, Atiku announced Ifeanyi Okowa as his running mate.

Political antecedent:

Atiku’s first attempt to run for the presidency was in 1993. He lost out to MKO Abiola of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) at the primaries.

After his attempt to succeed his boss Chief Olusegun Obasanjo failed ahead of the 2007 Presidential Election, Adamawa-born former customs officer joined his political ally Tinubu in a new party ACN where he secured the party’s ticket to run for the office of the president. He lost.

Again in 2011, the former VP returned to his former party (PDP), but he was defeated in the primaries. He attempted again in 2015, but he was not lucky.

In the 2019 presidential election, Atiku scored the second highest votes, securing 41.2% at 11,262,978 votes. It was his closet reach to the Aso Villa. But unfortunately, the votes of the incumbent Muhammadu Buhari 3,938,869 votes were more than his.

The 2023 presidential election would be Atiku’s sixth attempt and possibly his last if he failed to come out victorious at the polls.

Born on November 25, 1946, he would turn 76 years old by November 25, 2022. He is a successful businessman. He won the Adamawa governorship election in 1998 before Obasanjo chose him as his running mate which both won.

Atiku’s social media handles:

  • Verified Twitter: @atiku
  • Facebook.com/Atiku.org
  • Instagram: @aatiku
  • YouTube: @AtikuAbubakarOrg
  • Domain name: atiku.org

Peter Gregory Obi (LP)

Peter Obi is a successful businessman and fulfilled banker from Anambra State, South-East Nigeria. He was in the banking sector, specifically as the youngest Chairman of Fidelity Bank before he ventured into politics.

His first political office was as the governor of his home state. Two times he was illegally denied or removed from office, two times, he claimed his mandate at the court. During those times, he joined the list of Nigeria’s state governors who were removed from office.

RELATED:  History of Cross River State: Major Towns And List of Governors from 1967 till date

Political antecedent:

As Anambra State governor under the All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA), he was described as a brilliant manager of state resources including investing for the state government.

Some years after leaving office, he joined the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) as 2019 approached. The presidential candidate of PDP in the 2019 elections Alhaji Atiku Abubakar picked him as his running mate.

The party lost the election. He remained in the party till 2022 under which he earlier joined PDP presidential aspirants. But he left when he discovered that it was impossible for anyone to emerge as a presidential candidate under PDP without spending billions of naira to bribe delegates.

He joined a less-known opposition party, Labour Party (LP) and by May 2022, he emerged as the party’s presidential candidate for the 2023 elections.

However, some of his critics say Obi has no political structure and the financial capability to overpower two main dominant political parties: APC and PDP.

His social media supporter have been overwhelming and he’s optimistic that the support would be transformed into his victory in the 2023 presidential election.

 Running mate: On July 8, 2022, Obi announced a former Senator and former member of PDP Yusuf Datti Baba-Ahmed as his running mate.

Social media connections:

As the country approaches the 2023 presidential elections, fake social media accounts are most likely going to fly around. Below are the authentic social media handles of Peter Obi:

  • Twitter: @PeterObi
  • Facebook: facebook.com/PeterObiGregory
  • Instagram: PeterObiGregory
  • TikTok: @PeterObiGregory

Rabiu Kwankwaso (NNPP)

The two-term governor of Kano State Rabiu Kwankwaso is an influential Northern politician who had been a member of two major political parties in Nigeria (PDP and APC) before settling with the New Nigeria Peoples Party (NNPP), the party he single-handedly founded to achieve his presidential ambition.

Political antecedent:

Kwankwaso has been in political space since the 1990s and is one of the ardent followers of Late General Shehu Yar’adua. His senior political allies include Babagana Kingibe, Bola Tinubu, Atiku Abubakar, and the Late Tony Anenih, Lamidi Adedibu and Chuba Okadigbo among others.

At 36-year-old, Kwankwaso was elected under the Social Democratic Party (SDP) to represent Madobi Federal Constituency and rose to become the Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Though the republic was short-lived as it was aborted by the regime of Gen Ibrahim Babangida after Late Moshood Abiola won the election.

The fact that the late Sani Abacha ended the republic and by throwing MKO into jail did not stop Kwankwaso from his political journey. No wonder he joined the Democratic Party of Nigeria (DPN) as Abacha was planning to transition into civilian.

He was the first civilian to be appointed as the Minister of Defence by the administration of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo. The former Kano governor has been relevant in Nigeria’s political space since the country returned to civilian rule in 1999.

On June 8, 2022, the former Defence Minister emerged as the Presidential candidate of NNPP after the only aspirant contesting against him Olufemi Ajadi stepped down leading him to fly the flag of the party unopposed ahead of the 2023 elections.

Running mate: On July 14, 2022, Kwankwaso announced a Lagos-based Ed-born Pastor Isaac Idahosa as his running mate.

Before choosing Idahosa, Kwankwaso and NNPP had tried to negotiate with Peter Obi and Labour Party. The plan was to make Obi who was gaining more political relevance and gradually becoming a movement in the Southern part of Nigeria be his running mate.

None of both parties was ready to compromise their political dream of becoming the president, the negotiation ended without a deal. They went their spate ways.

Social media handles of Kwankwaso

  • Twitter.com/KwankwasoRM
  • Instagram.com/kwankwasorm

Okwudili Nwa-Anyajike (NRM)

On June 2, 2022, businessman Okwudili Nwa-Anyajike won his party primaries National Rescue Movement. He got 78.26% of the valid votes cast.

Mazi Nwa-Anyajike is a founding member of the ruling APC, but left the party a few days before its primaries, saying the ruling APC had lost the ideals upon which it was founded.

While he was in APC, he served as the Director General for Nyerere Anyim Governorship Campaign in Abia State and was a leading member of Hope Uzodinma governorship campaign in Imo State in 2019.

Running mate: Abdullahi Muhammed Koli.

Social media:

  • Twitter: @Project9ja2023
  • Facebook: facebook.com/mazi.nwa
  • Instagram: @thenigerianproject2023
  • Domain: thenigerianproject2023.com

Sunday Adenuga (BP)

On June 7, 2022, an Ogun-born business mogul from Ogun state, Sunday Adenuga emerged as Boot Party presidential candidate for the 2023 presidential election.

Running mate: Turaku Mustapha

Peter Umeadi (APGA)

On June 1, 2022, Prof. Peter Umeadi, a former chief judge of Anambra state was unanimously picked as the presidential candidate of the All Progressives Grand Alliance in the 2023 presidential election.

Running mate: Abdullahi Muhammed Koli

Dumebi Kachikwu (ADC)

On June 9, 2022, a media entrepreneur and founder of Roots TV Nigeria, Dumebi Kachikwu emerged as the candidate for the African Democratic Congress (ADC). He defeated former Deputy Governor of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Prof Kingsley Moghalu.

Kachikwu had 977 votes against Mr Moghalu, who had 589 votes while Chukwuka Monye came third with 339 votes.

His opponents accused him of bribing delegates to get their votes.

Running mate: On July 27, 2022, the Roots TV CEO unveiled Ahmed Buhari as his running mate

Social Democratic Party (SDP)

SDP, like the party, did before the 2019 election, was battling an internal crisis at the time of this report. There were parallel conventions where two candidates claimed victory.

One of them is the 54-year-old founder of the KAFTAN Television Adewole Adebayo, the second is a former senior lawmaker Senator Ebenezer Ikeyina.

Omoyele Sowore (AAC)

On June 9, 2022, Sowore who is the founder of the African Action Congress, stepped down as the party’s chairman and emerged as the consensus candidate for the party for the 2023 presidential candidate.

Political antecedent:

Sowore’s political activism can be traced to the University of Lagos (UNILAG) as an undergraduate where he served as president of the Student Union Government (SUG).

Twice he was expelled for political activism that exposed the unNigerian policies of the military government at the time. He contested in the 2019 presidential election. He came fifth.

Running mate: On June 30, 2022, Sowore picked a Kano-based lawyer Haruna Garba Magashi as AAC running mate.

Action Peoples Party

Presidential candidate: Osita Nnadi

Running mate: Isa Hamisu

RELATED:  History of Abia State

Young Progressives Party

The prince of Ebiraland and the founder of the Reset Nigeria Initiative Malik Ado-Ibrahim is the YPP presidential candidate for the 2023 election. He clinched the party’s ticket on June 8, beating Ruby Isaac by a wider margin.

Running mate: Kasarachi Enyinna

Kola Abiola (PRP)

Kola Abiola, the first son of the late winner of the 1993 Presidential election MKO Abiola, emerged as the 2023 presidential candidate of the People’s Redemption Party. PRP is one of the second republic parties that was revitalized since Nigeria’s return to civil rule in 1999.

The party’s primary was keenly contested among four aspirants in which Kola defeated Usman Bugaje, Gboluga Mosugu, and Patience Key. He garnered 59.88% of votes cast to emerge victorious.

Running mate: Ribi Marshal

Yusuf Mamman Dan Talle (APM)

The founder of Almat Farms Dan Talle is a flag bearer of the Allied Peoples Movement. He won the nomination of the party on June 9 unopposed.

Running mate: Ojei Princess

Hamza Al-Mustapha (AA)

The most controversial of all the 2023 presidential candidates is the retired Army Intelligence Officer Hamza Al-Mustapha. He joined the military at 23-year-old and at 33-year-old, the military regime of Sani Abacha appointed him in November 1993 as his Chief Security Officer (CSO).

As the CSO to the late despot, Al-Mustapha was accused to have carried out the most inhumane operations, including an accusation of involvement in the killings of individuals who opposed the regime of his master between 1993 till June 8, 1998. He was acquitted of the charges.

Al-Mustapha Political antecedent

The retired Army major was tactically involved in Nigeria’s political structure that divided Nigeria into six geopolitical zones as Abacha was strategically planning to convert himself into a democratic president before his sudden death on June 8, 1998, which till today remained mysterious.

Though Al-Mustapha spent 15 years in the military and 15 years of his life in jail because of the atrocities committed by the Abacha regime, the Yobe-born retired intelligence officer believed he is the best to be Nigeria’s president.

To fulfil his presidential ambition, he founded a political party seven years after leaving prison and contested under the Green Party of Nigeria (GPN). He was the founder of GPN under which he contested the 2019 presidential election.

The ambitious former CSO believed that there is no arm in trying over and over again, and joined the list of AA presidential aspirants. And on June 9, 2022, he beat his opponent Samson Odupitan by 506 votes to 216 votes.

Vice presidential nominee: Chukwuka Johnson

Christopher Imumolen (AP)

A 38-year-old university professor Christopher Irene Imumolen emerged as the presidential candidate of the Accord Party on June 4, 2022. He is the founder of Joint Professional Training and Support International Limited (JPTS).

Running mate:

Social media handles of Imumolen:

  • Instagram: @drchrismolen
  • Twitter: @dimumolen
  • Facebook.com/DrChrisMolen
  • Domain: profchrismolen.io

Dan Nwanyanwu (ZPA)

The presidential candidate of Zenith Progressives Alliance for the 2023 election is Dan Nwanyanwu, a businessman and lawyer. Before the name change, ZPA was known as Zenith Labour Party.

He was instrumental in the founding of the Party for Social Democracy to serve as the political wing of the Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC). PSD was later changed to Labour Party to reflect the ideals of the Nigerian workers.

Running mate: Ramalan Abubakar

Yabagi Sani (ADP)

The outspoken Yabagi Yusuf Sani aka YYSani emerged as the presidential candidate of the Action Democratic Party ahead of the 2023 general elections.

Running mate: Okey Udo was announced as Sani’s running mate on June 23.

Political experience:

From 1993 to date, Yabagi isn’t a stranger in Nigeria’s political history. His major political role began in the 1990s as the regime of Gen Ibrahim Babangida was planning to return Nigeria to democratic rule.

At 36-year-old, YYSani was appointed as the Campaign Coordinator, North Central for Alhaji Bashir Tofa of the National Republican Convention (NRC) when the coast was clear for the two parties ahead of the 1993 general elections.

Even as the third republic was completed aborted by IBB/Abacha regime, Yabagi continued to be actively involved in major political events in Nigeria.

As the country returned to democratic rule in 1999, YYSani contested as a governorship candidate in Niger State and also a former member board of trustees of All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) after a name change in the party.

2023 elections would not be his first, he was one of the presidential candidates in Nigeria in 2019 election.

When is the 2023 presidential election holding?

Nigeria’s 2023 presidential election will hold on Saturday, February 25, 2023, across the country, according to the INEC election timetable

Which party is Peter Obi?

Peter Obi is now in Labour Party (LP). He is also the presidential candidate of the party in the 2023 general election. LP is his third party since he joined politics.

How many political parties are contesting the 2023 elections?

According to information on INEC website, 18 political parties will participate in the 2023 general elections.

Which presidential candidate is the most popular for the 2023 presidential election?

All presidential candidates are popular in their way, however, Peter Obi of LP, Bola Tinubu of APC, and Atiku Abubakar of PDP are the most popular of them all.

Will Nigeria’s 2023 general election hold?

There are fairs over insecurity including terrorism, banditry, kidnapping, and ethnic violence, but the incumbent President Buhari promised to stabilize the country for the 2023 elections to hold.

INEC has also said that he is ready for the election. But the readiness of the electoral umpire is dependent on the measures put in place by the armed forces of the country.

Recap:

There are 18 presidential candidates for the 2023 elections, representing 18 political parties registered and recognized by Nigeria’s electoral umpire.

The presidential candidates boast of being the best and optimistic about winning the crucial election, but only three of them have been most active in the field and on social media.

References:

  1. Rose Oriaran-Anthony (February 26, 2022). “Timetable and Schedule of Activities for 2023 General Election.” inecnigeria.org
  2. Queen Esther Iroanusi (May 11, 2022). “PDP dumps zoning, throws presidential ticket open.” premiumtimesng.com
  3. Adedayo Akinwale (June 6, 2022). “Breaking: Adamu Announces Lawan as APC Consensus Candidate, NWC Divided.” thisdaylive.com
  4. July 12, 2013. “Al-Mustapha, Shofolahan step out of Kirikiri Prisons.” vanguardngr.com

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